# Glossary index

On this page are links to definitions for the jargon words often used in medicine and the numbers and statistics used to describe it. The glossary includes terms used in epidemiology, in clinical trials, in diagnosis, in statistics, and in health economics.

For many of these terms, a simple description is all that is needed, but for others, a wider discussion may be necessary. In that case, there will be a further link to a page with that wider description and/or definition.

This latest update is in April 2004; changes will be posted as they become available.

# A

Absolute risk reduction/increaseAccuracy

Adverse drug reaction

Adverse effect

Adverse event

Average

A priori

# B

BayesBias

Blinding

# C

Care pathwaysCase-control study

Case report

Case series

Class effect

Clinical governance

Clinical trial

Clinical practice guideline

Cohort study

Clouded thinking

Concealment of allocation

Conditional probability

Confounding

Conflict of interest

Confidence interval

CONSORT

Control

Control event rate

Cost-benefit analysis

Cost-effectiveness analysis

Cost minimisation analysis

Cost utility analysis

Cox model

Critical appraisal

Crossover study design

Cross-sectional study

Cumulative meta-analysis

# D

Decision analysis (or clinical decision analysis)Degrees of belief

Degrees of freedom

Duplication

# E

Early detectionEcological survey

Effect size

Empirical

Epidemiology

Error (in testing)

Event rate

Evidence-based health care

Evidence-based medicine

Experimental event rate

# F

False negativeFalse negative rate

False positive

False positive rate

Fixed effect model

Framing

Franklin's law

Frequencies

# G

Gold standardGuideline

# H

HeterogeneityHomogeneity

# I

Ignorance of risksIllusion of certainty

Impact factor

Integrated care pathway

Incidence

Inception cohort

Individual patient data

Intention-to-treat analysis

Independence

Innumeracy

# L

L'Abbé plotLife expectancy

Likelihood ratio

Longitudinal study

# M

Mean, Median, ModeMESH

Meta-analysis

Miscommunication of risks

MOOSE

Mortality reduction

# N

N-of-1 trialsNatural frequencies

Negative predictive value

NICE

Null hypothesis

Number of days/years gained or lost

Number needed to treat

Number needed to harm

# O

Observational studyOdds

Odds ratio

Outputs

# P

P value(patient expected event rate)

Peer review

Peto

Phases in drug developement

Placebo

Point estimate

Post test odds

Post test probability

Pre test odds

Pre test probability/prevalence

Positive predictive value

Precision

Prevalence

Principle of indifference

Probability

ProCite

Programme budgeting and marginal analysis

Prospective study

Protocol

Prior probability

Posterior probability

Propensities

Publication bias

# Q

QALYQualitative and quantitative research

Quality of life

Quality scoring

Quasi-random allocation

QUOROM

# R

Random effect modelRandomisation (or random allocation)

Randomised controlled clinical trial

Reference class

Retrospective study

Risk factor

Risk ratio or relative risk

Relative risk reduction

Relative frequencies

Reporting quality

# S

ScreeningSensitivity

Searching

Selection bias

Selection criteria

Sensitivity analysis

Size

Snnout

Spectrum bias

Specificity

Sppin

STARD

Statistical power

Stratified randomisation

Surrogate endpoint or outcome

Systematic review

# T

Trust# U

UncertaintyUtility

# V

ValidityVariable

Variance